Vulnerability and Risk Assessments

Vulnerability and risk assessments are a key element for the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects in the context of climate change. They are the first step within a climate risk management (CRM) approach and also provide the basis for mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in development projects.

The impacts of climate change and the incurring risks for local communities are highly dependent on the local context. They depend on different factors such as the location of the community and exposure to climate hazards as well as their adaptive capacities defined by their livelihood strategies, existing knowledge, access to services, infrastructure and political decision making. Climate risk assessments (CRA) therefore need to be developed together with the community, combining scientific research and local knowledge and experience. Participatory approaches give women and men a voice and ensure that the analysis accurately capture the local situation and the needs and capacities of the local communities.

The adaptation strategies developed on the basis of climate risk assessments (CRA) provide a basis for adapting production strategies, improving organizational capacities, networking and scaling up disaster risk management methods. In many cases traditional farming strategies and knowledge provide a sound basis for further developing sustainable, soil-recovering and soil-conserving practices. These need to be combined with scientific knowledge on the expected climate change and technical expertise on additional adaptation techniques. Organizational structures and traditions have to be stabilized and strengthened in order to react effectively and flexibly to new hazards. Risk management capacities at local, regional or national level have to be revised and reformed and the cooperation between the different levels needs to be strengthened. A comprehensive approach is needed to help to secure and develop rural livelihoods against current and future climate change.

Further information on FAKT tools on climate risk assessments can also be found at

FAKT provides services in the following areas:

  • Participatory vulnerability and risk assessments for rural communities and development projects, e.g., the tool Participatory Assessment of Climate and Disaster Risks (PACDR)
  • Quantitative and qualitative methods for assessing risks within local communities
  • Conceptual development of risk assessment tools and linkages to project monitoring and indicators
  • Capacity building and training on climate change bringing together different stakeholders from local communities, NGOs and governments
  • Facilitation of (online) learning on risk assessments and building up of communities of practice


The Rapid Climate Risk Assessment is a tool that is designed to monitor climate change impacts systematically.

The GIZ Global Project ‘Mainstreaming EbA - strengthening ecosystem-based adaptation in planning and decision-making processes' launched a collection of publications exploring climate justice aspects in EbA.